In Women's Words: Violence and Everyday Life during the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor, 1975-1999 (Asian & Asian American Studies)
Drawing primarily upon oral history interviews, this study presents a woman-centered history of the Indonesian occupation. It reveals the pervasiveness of violence-as well as its gendered and gendering dynamics-within the social and cultural "everyday" of life in occupied East Timor. The violence experienced by East Timorese women ranged from torture, rape, and interrogation, to various forms of surveillance and social control, and the structural imposition of particular feminine ideals upon their lives and bodies. Through women, East Timorese familial culture was also targeted via programs to "develop" and "modernise" the territory by transforming the feminine and the domestic sphere. Women experienced the occupation differently to men, not just because they were vulnerable to sexual violence, but also because they endured proxy violence as the military's means of targeting male relatives and the resistance at large. In Women's Words tells a story of survival and perseverance by highlighting the strength, initiative, and negotiating skills of East Timorese women. Many women lived in circumstances of constant negotiation and attempts to maintain order and normality, as well as to provide for themselves and their families, in a society where everyday life was characterised by viol...
Genocide and Resistance in Southeast Asia: Documentation, Denial, and Justice in Cambodia and East Timor
Two modern cases of genocide and extermination began in Southeast Asia in the same year. Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge regime ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, and Indonesian forces occupied East Timor from 1975 to 1999. This book examines the horrific consequences of Cambodian communist revolution and Indonesian anti-communist counterinsurgency. It also chronicles the two cases of indigenous resistance to genocide and extermination, the international cover-ups that obstructed documentation of these crimes, and efforts to hold the perpetrators legally accountable.The perpetrator regimes inflicted casualties in similar proportions. Each caused the deaths of about one-fifth of the population of the nation. Cambodia's mortality was approximately 1.7 million, and approximately 170,000 perished in East Timor. In both cases, most of the deaths occurred in the five-year period from 1975 to1980. In addition, Cambodia and East Timor not only shared the experience of genocide but also of civil war, international intervention, and UN conflict resolution. U.S. policymakers supported the invading Indonesians in Timor, as well as the indigenous Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. Both regimes exterminated ethnic minorities, including local Chinese, as well as political dissidents. Yet the ideological fuel that i...
Haunted Houses and Ghostly Encounters: Ethnography and Animism in East Timor, 1860-1975 (ASAA Southeast Asia Publications)
Haunted Houses and Ghostly Encounters: Ethnography and Animism in East Timor, 1860–1975 presents a history of Western ethnography of animism in East Timor during the Portuguese period. The book consists of ten chapters, each one a narrative of the work and experience of a particular ethnographer. Part One deals with colonial ethnography and Part Two with professional anthropology. Covering a selection of seminal nineteenth- and twentieth-century ethnographies, the author explores the relationship between spiritual beliefs, colonial administration, ethnographic interests, and fieldwork experience. It is argued that the presence of outsiders precipitated a new “transformative animism” as colonial control over Portuguese Timor was consolidated. This came about because increasingly powerful outsiders posed threats and offered rewards to the Timorese just as the powerful ancestor spirits had long done; consequently, the Timorese ritualized their dealings with outsiders following their established model for appealing to spirits. Bringing colonial and professional ethnography into the one frame of reference, it is shown that ethnographers of both types not only bore witness to these processes of transformative animism, they also exemplified them. The book presents an original synt...
DIVINE SPEARS: Operations of Indonesia's Special Forces in East Timor, 1975-77
IN A NATION where the military has played an influential social and political role since its founding, perhaps no unit has wielded more power – and seen more combat – than Kopassus, Indonesia’s Special Forces. And perhaps nowhere did it experience more challenging assignments than in the mountains and jungles of East Timor. Here, two Kopassus teams – codenamed nanggala, a Sanskrit term for “divine spear” – are documented in detail during the earliest phase of the East Timor campaign. Coming when Fretilin insurgents were at their most powerful, these Special Forces teams took on assignments ranging from airborne assaults to psychological warfare. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in unconventional warfare, contemporary Indonesian history, the struggle of Timor Leste, and the brushfire wars that have swept the Indonesian archipelago.KEN CONBOY is currently country manager for a private security and risk consultancy in Jakarta. Prior to that, he served as deputy director at the Asian Studies Center, an influential Washington-based think tank, where his duties included writing policy papers for the US Congress and Executive on economic and strategic relations with the nations of South and Southeast Asia. The author of nearly twenty books abo...
New Left Review (May-June 1975): Victory in Indochina (91)
Major studies from leading British and international leftists. Miklos Haraszti, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, on Douglas Sirk, Michael Lowy, on Lukaks and Stalin, Ralph Milibrand, on Charles Bettleheim, Grant Evans, on East Timor, others
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Cold Blood: The Massacre Of East Timor (Full Documentary) | Timeline
East Timor 1975
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Examines the nature of the Indonesian occupation of the former Portuguese colony of East Timor. Documentary first broadcast in 1992.
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